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HOME En - Fr - Es - De English Bee mortality. Avalanche of studies. A certain cause: pesticides!

Bee mortality. Avalanche of studies. A certain cause: pesticides!

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May 30, 2012 spagnola_18x12 italiana_18x12

rfid01In just 2 years, more and more scientific studies nail systemic insecticides: cause and contributing cause of bees crisis! The latest studies are cumulated to the already considerable scientific evidence and field phenomena that emerged in previous years.

Concise overview of the dozens of scientific studies that, in just the last two years as anavalanche, show ...



unacceptable ... effect of the insecticide molecules commonly used in the world, in every cultures and in all areas.

RECENT SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH ABOUT: BEES - AGRICULTURE - PESTICIDE

 
 
 

1) Oilseed rape crops distort plant-pollinator interactions (Diekoetter T. - Diekötter T. - KadoyaT. - PeterF. - Wolters V. - Jauker F.) Germany and Japan, 2010

Study about the interactions between rape crops and pollinators

Open source : Journal of applied ecologypdf

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2) Risk assessment for side-effects of neonicotinoids against bumblebees with and without impairing foraging behavior

(Mommaerts V. - Reynders S. - Boulet J. - Besard L. - Sterk G.) Belgium, 2010

Study that proves that non lethal doses of pesticides determinate serious effects on bumblebees foraging behavior.

The wide use of these various molecules disturb normal bumblebee behavior with: pollination activity reduction, decreased  reproduction and ultimate death of the colony due to insufficient supply.

Conclusions. It 's necessary include the alteration of feeding behavior in the risk assessment test of pesticides.

Only Abstract: copyrightSpringerLink Ecotoxicol

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3) Field trial for evaluating the effects on honey bees of corn sown using Cruiser and Celest xl treated seeds (Tremolada P. - Mazzoleni M. - Saliu F. - Colombo M. - Vighi M.) Italy, 2010

Study of the effects on bees of noenicotinoids used for the seed dressing.
Conclusion: the areas with treated corn seed, with systemic molecules, constitute a significant threat to bees, especially when thiamethoxam is used, one of the most toxic compounds.

Only Abstract: copyright SpringerLink Bull Environ Contam Toxicol

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4) Effects of neonicotinoid pesticide pollution of Dutch surface water on non‐target species abundance (van Dijk T. et al.) Holland, 2010

Nenicotinoids pesticides on Dutch surface water; effects on the several non-target species

Open source: Utrecht University pdf

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5) Interactions between Nosema microspores and a neonicotinoid weaken honeybees (Apis mellifera)(Alaux C. et al.) France, 2010

The interaction between Nosema microspores and Imidacloprid put in danger the entire life of the bee colony

Open source: Envionmental Microbiology pdf

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6) Incidence of animal poisoning cases in the Czech Republic: current situation (Modra H. - Svodobovà Z.) Czech Republic, 2010

Report made by the Veterinary Services of Czech Republic. The study demonstrated that after the prohibition of the plant protection Regent Wp 50, based on fipronil, on rape crops, there were no more cases of bees poisoning.
The most massive poisoning of hives in the Czech Republic was caused by the insecticide Regent, which is effective for 21 days after spraying.The Regent Wp 50 authorization to fight the beetle in the rape crop has been canceled in 2006.
2006 was the first year without cases of colony poisoning and in the next year there were no longer observed bee mortality in Czech Republic
 
Open source: toxicology

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7) Overview of Pesticide Residues in Stored Pollen and Their Potential Effect on Bee Colony (Apis mellifera) Losses in Spain(Bernal J. et al.) Spain, 2010

Research on pesticides residues found in Spanish pollen

Only Abstract: copyrightJournal of Economic Entomology

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8) Use Patterns of Neonicotinoid Insecticides on Cucurbit Crops and their Potential Exposure to Honey Bees(Galen Dively et al.)  Usa, 2010

Study about risks for bees and others pollinators of neonicotinoid insecticides use on cucurbits crops, during the flowering, and possible hive damage resulting from contaminated stored food.

Open source: Epa pdf

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9) Apenet report 2011(Lodesani M. - Porrini C. - Girolami V. - Mutinelli F - Furlan L. - Biocca M. - Balconi C. - Conte E. - Maccagnani B. - Maini S. -Marnelli E. - Motto M. - Pochi D. - Pulcini P. - Sgolastra F.) Italy, 2011

The long-term public and multidisciplinary research Apenet, funded by the Italian Ministry of Agriculture, about the bee crisis, systemic effects of chemical seed treatment and corn rootworm, has produced many important scientific findings, including:

- Unacceptable acute and chronic effects of seed treatment on bees and on non-targets insects;
- Detection of various, deadly and unexpected routes of exposure of bees;
- Inadmissible effects of treatment even with significant reduction of pollutant emission;
- Limitations and serious consequences of the chemical approach to the corn defense.

Therefore Unaapi found it useful to produce a summary including the most significant passages of the latest report edited by the research group Apenet 2011.

Nothing of the full Apenet 2011 report has been added or modified. 

Open source: Relazione Apenet 2011

Open sourceSintesi Unaapi della Relazione Apenet 2011

Open source: Presentazione progetto Apenet(3.4 MB)

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10) Integrated pest management in maize: How to do it in the early stages (Furlan L.- Cappellari C. - Porrini C. - Radeghieri P. - Ferrari R. - Pozzati M. - Davanzo M. - Canzi S. - Saladini M.A. - Alma A. - Balconi C. - Stocco M.)
Italy, 2010

The biological pest control for the corn defense proves the uselessness of neonicotinoids.

Only Abstract: copyrightL’Informatore Agrario, 7, Supplemento Difesa delle Colture, 15–19.

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11) Fatal powdering of bees in flight with particulates of neonicotinoids seed coating and humidity implication(Girolami V. - Marzaro M. - Vivan L. - Mazzon L. - Greatti M. et al.)  Italy, 2010

Fatal contamination of bees during flight by micro powder systemicly treated corn.
Established the toxic contamination from neonicotinoids on bees during the flight phase, variable according to weather conditions: with high humidity there is a significant increase of bees mortality.

Open source: Entomol pdf

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12) Toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides to honey bees: laboratory tests(Laurino D. - Porporato M. - Patetta A. - Manino A.) Italy, 2010

Established, through laboratory studies, the toxicity of several neonicotinoids for bees. It was highlighted the systemic repellent effect of some molecules, especially acetamiprid and thiacloprid for hungry bees.
The amount of residues detected found on dead bees samples were much lower than the amounts administered.

Open source: Bullettin of Insectology pdf

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13) Exposure to sublethal doses of fipronil and thiacloprid highly increases mortality of honey bees previously infected by Nosema ceranae(Vidau C. - Diogon M. - Aufauvre J. - Fontbonne R. - Vigues B. et al.) France, 2011

Reconfirmation of the dangerous interactions to bees between the pathogen Nosema ceranae and sub-lethal doses of systemic insecticides (Fipronil and Thiacloprid). The physiological effects induced by low doses of pesticides, such as stress factors, multiply the  risk associated with typical and endemic pathogen factors.

Open source : PLoS One (pdf)

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14) Honeybee tracking with microchips: a new methodology to measure the effects of pesticides(Decourtye A. - Devillers J. - Aupinel P. - Brun F. - Bagnis C. - Fourrier J. - Gauthier M.) France, 2011

The aim of this study was to show how the RFID device can be used to study the effects of pesticides on both the behavioral traits and the lifespan of bees.
The oral treatment of only 0.3 ng of fipronil per bee (LD50/20) reduced the number of foraging trips and consequently the colony supply

Only Abstract: copyright Ecotoxicology

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15) Rapid analysis of neonicotinoid insecticides in guttation drops of corn seedling obtained from coated seeds (Tapparo A. - Giorio C. - Marzaro M. - Marton D. - Solda L. - Girolami V.) Italy, 2011

The plant fluids, treated with neonicotinoid, transferring high concentrations of insecticide molecules from the seed to the surface of the leaves. This source water supply, contaminated with a high concentration of pesticide, may persist for weeks on the corn surface. With a possible exposure through guttation and dew  to bees and other living forms.

Open source: Journal of Environmental Monitoring pdf

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16) Influence of some experimental conditions on the results of laboratory toxicological tests on honeybees (Medrzycki P. - Sgolastra F. - Bogo G. - Tosi S. - Venturi S.)  Italy, 2011

In laboratory tests used for testing toxicity on bees there is a range of temperatures. The study shows, however, as the final result: the calculation of the LD50 (lethal dose 50), is significantly different depending on the temperature.
A range of four degrees can invalidate the test reliability, the current method can  create a possible underestimation and / or overestimation of toxicity.

Only Abstract: copyrightCra-api

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17) Multiple routes of pesticide exposure for honey bees living near agricultural fields(Krupke C. H. - Hunt G. J. - Eitzer B. D. - Andino G. - Given K.) Usa, 2012

The study found that pollen from corn field, collected by bees, has high doses of the neonicotinoid clothianidin , with contamination levels higher than expected.
Clothianidin is highly toxic to bees, orally (LD50 2.8 ng / bee against the 22-44 ng / bee for contact). The research also confirmed two other routes of exposure for the hive life: the discharge of the powder during and after seeding and non-cultivated fields adjacent to the plantations of corn treated with high values ​​of the pesticide .

Open source: PLoS ONE pdf

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18) Rfid tracking of sublethal effects of two neonicotinoid insecticides on the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera (Schneider C. W. - Tautz J. - Grünewald B. -Fuchs S. e al.) Germany, 2012

A study using Rfid technology of sublethal doses of two neonicotinoids. Both substances resulted in a significant reduction in foraging activity, within only three hours after treatment a ≥ 0,5 ng / bee (clothianidin) and ≥ 1,5 ng / bee (imidacloprid). Sublethal dosages for individual bees can result in lethal doses for the survival of bee colonies.

Open source: PLoS ONE pdf

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19) A Common Pesticide Decreases Foraging Success and Survival in Honey Bees(Henry M. - Beguin M. - Requier F. et al.) France, 2012

The French researchers analyze various degrees of exposure to the insecticide thiamethoxam at different doses with RFID technology.
The mortality of infected foraging  bees  ranges  between10.2% and 31.6%. These losses are even more serious for the colonies during spring, for colonies passed winter with old bees and small quantities. It’s clear how, for example, exposure to thiamethoxam on flowering rape seed can significantly compromise the balance and the colonies survival.

Only Abstract: copyright science magazine

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20) Neonicotinoid Pesticide Reduces Bumble Bee Colony Growth and Queen Production (Whitehorn P. - O’Connor S. - Wackers F.- Goulson D.) England, 2012

75 colonies of Bombus terrestris were collected who received contaminated pollen in the laboratory, the dose usually found on flowers of oilseed rape treated. After two weeks bumblebees were reported in the field and the colonies were monitored for progress for the next six weeks. The results were: the contaminated colonies lost 8 to 12% of the components. In nests 18 to 30% more empty cells and up to 85% less queens born.

Only Abstract: copyright science magazine

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21) Parasite-insecticide interactions: a case study of Nosema ceranae and fipronil synergy on honeybeeAufauvre J. - Biron D. - Vidau C. - Fontbonne R. - Roudel M. - Diogon M. - Viguès B. - Belzunces L. - Delbac F. - Blot N.) France, 2012

Comparison of bees mortality exposed to the pathogen intestinal Nosema ceranae, in sequence and simultaneously, with sub-lethal doses Fipronil insecticide. Apart from the different sequences of administration, it was found a synergistic interaction between Nosema and fipronil. In all the samples examined, there was a mortality after 22 days between 66% and 84%, values really high compared to the 23% and 39% of Nosema and Fipronil somministrate individually.

Open source: scientific reports pdf

See also: www.mieliditalia.it

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22) Pesticide exposure in honey bees results in increased levels of the gut pathogen Nosema(Pettis J.- vanEngelsdorp D. - Johnson J. - Dively G.) Usa, 2012

Exposure to bees colonies, for three generations, with sub lethal doses of imidacloprid molecule, and therefore infection the young bees, just born, with the intestinal parasite, Nosema spp. The administered dose of pesticide to bee colonies don’t cause noticeable effects to longevity or to foraging activities. Infection of intestinal pathogenic, deadly to bee colonies, significantly increased in bee hives when the colony was previously infected with lethal dose of imidacloprid. It is therefore demonstrate the effect of pesticides in the development of bee pathogens.

Only Abstract: copyright SpringerLink

See also the article on: www.mieliditalia.it

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23) Using video-tracking to assess sublethal effects of pesticides on honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)  (Bethany S. Teeters, Reed M. Johnson, Marion D. Ellis, Blair D. Siegfried) Usa, 2012

A study about exposure to pesticides, with EthoVisionXT video monitoring  for determination of acute and chronic effects on bees, following administration of contaminated food  with pesticides tau-fluvalinate and imidacloprid. With infinitesimally small doses of imidacloprid (bees exposed to 0.05 up  to 0.5 ppb), have shown serious behavioral disturbances, compared to the control samples of bees is not contaminated.

Only Abstract: Copyright Setac

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24) Are Neonicotinoids Killing Bees?(Hopwood J. - Vaughan M.- Shepherd M.- Biddinger D. – Mader E. - Hoffman Black S.- Mazzacano C.) Usa, 2012

A Xerces Association team led by the researcher Jennifer Hopwood, has conducted an extensive research that has revealed the various negative impacts of systemic insecticides on pollinators

Open source : Xerces Society pdf

See also the article on: www.mieliditalia.it

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25) Imidacloprid in Melon Guttation Fluid: A Potential Mode of Exposure for Pest and Beneficial Organisms (Hoffmann - Eric J. – Castle - Steven J.) Usa, 2012

A research conducted in USA by  Eric J. Hoffmann’s teamfound very high levels of contamination in the guttation water of melon crop in Arizona. The American study was carried out on melon crops,which are "habitually" treated with theBayer preparation(containing 42.8% of Imidacloprid).

 The study identified in the drops of guttation water an amount of active ingredient from 1.073 micrograms per milliliter (µg/ml) up to 37 µg/ml. Those dosages are deathly toxic to bees.

Only Abstract: Entomological Society of America

See also the article on:www.mieliditalia.it

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26) In situ replication of honey bee colony collapse disorder (Lu C.- Warchol K. - Callahan R.) Usa, 2012

American research in press, anticipated in public lecture. In a period of 23 weeks, in 4 zones 4 hives per site were treated with various doses of imidacloprid. After 23 weeks as much as 94% of beehives died with symptoms of Colony Collapse Disorder.

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27) Pesticides and honeybees: state of the science (HeathervPilatic - Pan North America) Usa 2012

It's a 22-page report on the factors behind colony collapse disorder (CCD) with a sustained focus on the particular role of pesticides.
By collecting and presenting the findings of dozens of peer-reviewed scientific studies — including a series of damning studies published in the last All of the studies presented are annotated and most are linked so readers can explore the state of the science for themselves. The science linking CCD and pesticides is complex, but it is not unclear.

Open source: Pan North America

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28) Commonly use pesticides turns bees into "picky eaters"(James Nieh, Daren Eiri) Usa 2012

Biologists at UC San Diego have discovered that a small dose of a commonly used crop pesticide turns honey bees into "picky eaters" and affects their ability to recruit their nestmates to otherwise good sources of food. Another demonstration about the effects are not considered of systemic pesticides on the health of bee colonies.

Only abstract: Science Daily

See also the article on: www.mieliditalia.it

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29) Bee mortality: an European Commission Investigation (P. Nikiforos Diamandouros) Belgium 2012

The European Mediator, P. Diamandouros, started an investigation to prove if the European Commission, used appropriate measures to combat bee mortality in Europe during the use authorization of some insecticides.
The complaint against the Commission was presented by the Austrian school of mediators, for not duly considered the new scientific evidences about the systemic insecticides neonicotinoids.

Open source: European Ombudsman

See also the article on: www.mieliditalia.it

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30) Pesticides and bee health Efsa rewiew of science(Efsa) Italy 2012

The European Food Safety Agency published its scientific opinion on how pesticide-risk for  bees should be assessed. This thorough scientific analysis finally admits what many have claimed for years: that systemic pesticides, blamed for killing bees and wildlife on a vast scale have never been properly evaluated and arguably have never been legally licensed.

Open source: Efsa

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31) Nicotine-Like Effects of the Neonicotinoid Insecticides Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid on Cerebellar Neurons from Neonatal Rats (Junko Kimura-Kuroda, Yukari Komuta, Yoichiro Kuroda, Masaharu Hayashi, Hitoshi Kawano) Japan 2012

A Japonese study confirms the connexion between the neonicotinoid insecticides Acetamiprid and Imidacloprid and brain development in neonatal rats, with nicotine-like effects (toxic substance for all mammals at the first stages of life).  Similar effects are expected to occur on humans cerebellar neurons.

Open source: Plosone

See also: www.mieliditalia.it

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32) The Impact of the Nation's Most Widely Used Insecticides on Birds (Pierre Mineau and Cynthia Palmer) Usa, 2013

An American Bird Conservancy study on the impact of neonicotinoid insecticides on North America's birds. The research reports adversive effects even on water invertebrates and, as a consequence, on the whole food chain. 

Open source: abcbirds 

See also: www.mieliditalia.it 

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33) Pesticide Acute Toxicity Is a Better Correlate of U.S. Grassland Bird Declines than Agricultural Intensification (Mineau P, Whiteside M.) Usa, 2013

Many European and American species of birds are in decline. Intensive agriculture and the indirect effects of pesticides are the major causes of the loss of food resources. The toxicity of pesticides should be seriously reconsidered as a determining factor in the decline of the birds of the grasslands. 

Open source: Plosone

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34) National report on pesticides in the water supplies: data 2009-2010. Edition 2013 (High Institute for Environmenta Protection and Research, Ispra) Italy, 2013

ISPRA reports dramatic data on pesticides' presence in the water supplies: 13.2% of Italian surface waters shows toxicity levels  exceeding the safety limits for aquatic organisms. Italian waters contamination is increasing. Residues derive from plant protection products used in agriculture (almost 350 different substances, that is more than 140,000 tons).

Open source: Ispra 

See also: www.mieliditalia.it - La Repubblica-Il Fatto Quotidiano - Lettera43

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35) Evaluation of Canadian Bee Mortalities that Coincided with Corn Planting in Spring 2012 (Health Canada Pest Management Agency, Pmra) Canada, 2013

Health Canada's Pest Management Agency (PMRA) Report on the relation bee decline and the sowing of corn treated with neonicotinoid insecticides. The report confirms a significant number of dead bees reported during spring 2012.
In the samples of Ontario's dead bees analyzed, clothianidin was detected in approximately the 70% of cases. Clothianidin and thiamethoxam were detected in the 80% of the Québec samples analyzed.  

Open source: Pmra 

See also: www.mieliditalia.it 

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36) Cholinergic pesticides cause mushroom body neuronal inactivation in honeybees (Palmer MJ, Moffat C, Saranzewa N, Harvey J, Wright GA, Connolly CN.) UK, 2013

The study by the Scottish Dundee University and the Newcastle University shows the effectiveness of systemic pesticides to cholinergic neurotransmission in pollinating insects. Through the analysis of certain cells in bees brain, it was established that the neonicotinoid imidacloprid and clothianidin and the organophosphate acaricide Coumaphos have negative effects on the neurons, causing serious cognitive deficits.

Only abstract: Ncbi 

See also: www.mieliditalia.it

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37) Exposure to multiple cholinergic pesticides impairs olfactory learning and memory in honeybees (Williamson SM, Wright GA.) UK 2013

UK study published by The Journal of Experimental Biology. It shows how exposure to imidacloprid and coumaphos  prevent bees from remembering the floral scent essential for their foraging activity. Once again it is demonstrated how sublethal doses of pesticides seriously compromise the foraging activity and lead to the decline of pollinators in the agricultural areas most exposed to pesticides.

Only abstract: Ncbi 

See also: www.mieliditalia.it 

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38) Multiple Routes of Pesticide Exposure for Honey Bees Living Near Agricultural Fields (Christian H. Krupke, Greg J. Hunt, Brian D. Eitzer, Gladys Andino, Krispn Given) Belgium, 2012

The Belgian Ghent University monitored the different routes of bees' exposure to corn treated with systemic insecticides. Results demonstrate how bees get in contact with the compounds all life long. Really high levels of clothianidin and thiamethoxam were found in various matrices: in treated soils (even in the adjacent fields), in plants (dandelions) growing near corn fields, in dead bees found next to the hives, in pollen stowed by bees in the hives and in the pollen of maize inflorescences.

Open source: Plosone 

See also: www.mieliditalia.it

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39) Sublethal doses of imidacloprid decreased size of hypopharyngeal glands and respiratory rhythm of honeybees in vivo (Fani Hatjina, Chrisovalantis Papaefthimiou, Leonidas Charistos, Taylan Dogaroglu, Maria Bouga, Christina Emmanouil, Gerard Arnold. Gracia,) France and Turkey, 2013

Laboratory tests prove once again the sublethal physiological effects of imidacloprid. The neonicotinoid, administered to bee since their birth, inhibits the development of the hypopharyngeal glands and the respiratory rhythm of bees. The reduction of the glands was found to be of 16.3% and showed up on day 14 of life, while the abdominal movements of ventilation decreased by almost 60%.

Only abstract: Springer 

See also: www.mieliditalia.it 

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40) Historical changes in northeastern US bee pollinators related to shared ecological traits (Ignasi Bartomeusa, John S. Ascherc, Jason Gibbse, Bryan N. Danforthe, David L. Wagnerf, Shannon M. Hedtkee, Rachael Winfreea) Usa, 2013

American pollinator populations have dramatically reduced over the last century and a half, largely due to human intervention that is responsible of habitat fragmenting. The genus Bombus is one of the most affected species amongst pollinators

Only abstract: Pnas

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41) EFSA identifies risks to bees from neonicotinoids (Efsa) 2013, Italy

The Food Safety Agency  - EFSA and the EU Member States' scientifics have analyzed three neonicotinoid molecules, clothianidin, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, assessing unacceptable and unmitigated risks to bees.

The risks to bees derive from the use of these molecules in seed treatment, for all crops visited by bees and pollinators, and from guttation of corn treated with thiamethoxam.

Open source: Efsa 

See also: www.mieliditalia.it

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42) Existing Scientific Evidence of the Effects of Neonicotinoid Pesticides on Bees (Eaa) Austria, 2012

Report by Austrian Agency for the Environment (EAA) on neonicotinoids' effects on bees and other pollinators. It takes into account the several publications available which demonstrate that bee chronic exposure to sub-lethal doses of neonicotinoids can cause a wide range of serious behavioral disorders.

As long as the effects of neonicotinoids on bees are uncertain, says the report, it is necessary to refer to the precautionary principle, applying the EC Regulation No. 1107/2009. This Regulation bans the place on market of substances that could have adverse effects on human and animal health, as well as on groundwater, including cumulative and synergistic effects.

Open source: Eaa

See also: www.mieliditalia.it

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43) Spineless: Status and Trends of the World's Invertebrates (Ben Collen, Monika Böhm, Rachael Kemp and Jonathan E. M. Baillie) UK, 2012

The dossier adverts that one fifth of invertebrates and a quarter of the insects are in danger of extinction.

The dramatic situation of pollinators: all the 250 species of bumblebees are at risk, and even two of them, Bombus rubriventris and B. melanopoda, are close to extinction. Honey bees are not in good health either. Apis mellifera would have already extinguished in many parts of the world, if not bred by man.

Open source: Zsl

See also: www.mieliditalia.it

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44) A review of factors that put pollinators and agriculture in Europe at risk (Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Report), Holland, 2013

A Greenpeace Report explaining the risk factors for bees in Europe.

Starting from the scientific evidence currently available, it shows how pesticides, especially the neonicotinoid ones, are the major responsible for the current pollinators decline. It is essential to recognize the scientific evidences on the threats to domestic and wild pollinators and to tackle them with urgent measures.

Open source: Greenpeace

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45) Pollinators and Pesticides: seventh report of session 2012–13 - UK 2013

Report by the British Parliament Environment Committee harshly critical of the Environment Ministry responsible for blocking the European Commission proposal to ban for two years the use of three neonicotinoid insecticides: chlothianidine, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam.

Open source: UK Parliament

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46) Late lessons for early warnings (Laura Maxim and Jeroen van der Sluijs) UE 2013

"Late lessons for early warnings" is the second dossier produced by the European Environment Agency (EEA). It is an important advocacy tool on the main environmental problems in Europe. It highlights the importance of the European Beekeeping Coordination's work and denouncies the huge gaps in the European regulations concerning  neonicotinoids. It is evident how, due to the uncertainty, it has been easy for stakeholders to manipulate their "scientific" evidences to defend their own interests and to put neonicotinoids on the market at the environmental expenses.

Open source: Eea

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47) Macro-Invertebrate Decline in Surface Water Polluted with Imidacloprid (Tessa C. Van Dijk, Marja A. Van Staalduinen, Jeroen P. Van der Sluijs) Holland, 2013

This long-term study analyzed Dutch surface waters, detecting concentrations of Imidacloprid above safety limits. The study reveals a close relationship between reduction of non-target organisms and increased concentrations of imidacloprid into the water. The consequences deriving from the huge use of imidacloprid in aquatic ecosystemsIt proves, are prove once again, thanks to field monitoring data.

Open source: PlosOne

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